Researchers are engaged in a variety of laboratory and clinical research programs to extend their understanding of the developing nervous system and pathologic processes that underlie neurological disorders in children. Approximately 70% of children who suffer epilepsy during their childhood eventually outgrow it. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a diagnostic tool used for inherited metabolic disorders. To date, MRS has been limited to the assessment for cerebral lactic acidosis in mitochondrial disorders in children. Neuromuscular and genetic metabolic diseases are the most common genetic related disorders in children. The new frontier to improve outcomes in critically ill pediatric patients with neurological illness is Pediatric Neurocritical Care.